Periodontitis, is the name of a collection of inflammatory diseases affecting the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the bone around teeth which may lead to loosening and eventual loss of teeth if untreated. Periodontitis is caused by bacteria that adhere to and grow on tooth surfaces (microbial plaque or biofilms), particularly in areas under the gum line. Periodontitis is very common in most populations. Dentists diagnose periodontitis by inspecting the tissues around the teeth with a probe and by radiographs to detect bone loss around the teeth. Although the different forms of periodontitis are bacterial diseases, a variety of factors affect the severity of the disease.
Important "risk factors" include smoking, poorly controlled diabetes, and inherited (genetic) susceptibility.
Symptoms may include the following:
Patients should realize that the gingival inflammation and bone destruction are largely painless. Hence, people may wrongly assume that painless bleeding after teeth cleaning is insignificant, although this may be a symptom of progressing periodontitis in that patient.
Treatment of periodontal disease depends on how much damage the disease has caused. Since periodontitis affects more than just the gums, it cannot be controlled with regular brushing & flossing. Treatment of periodontal disease is often extensive. The primary goals of all professional treatment are to promote reattachment of healthy gums to teeth, to reduce swelling, the depth of pockets, & the risk of infection, & stop further damage
Treatment Options maybe Surgical / Non-Surgical.
Non-Surgical Options :
Scaling : This is a type of cleaning. It removes plaque & tartar from the teeth & below the gum line.
Root Planing : The Dentist smoothens the root surfaces so that supporting tissues can reattach to the tooth surface. Local Anaesthesia may be used, as this procedure goes deeper than regular cleaning. Your Dentist may remove a small amount of infected gum tissue with a procedure called soft tissue curettage.
Consult your Dentist for more information on specific procedures.
Surgical Options :
In later stages of the disease, depending on the severity, any of the following procedures maybe indicated :